INTERNASIONÁL, OPINIAUN

Parte I: DEZENVOLVIMENTU SUSTENTÁVEL: Ba Kompreende Polítika Husi MCC iha Nasaun Terseiru Mundu: Estudu Kazu Kona-ba Nepal no Timor-Leste

Parte I: DEZENVOLVIMENTU SUSTENTÁVEL: Ba Kompreende Polítika Husi MCC iha Nasaun Terseiru Mundu: Estudu Kazu Kona-ba Nepal no Timor-Leste

Franz Soares, Peskizador Institutu ba Estudu Dame Konflitu no Sosial (IEDKS)

Hakerek husi:

  • Franz Soares, Peskizadór Institutu ba Estudu Dame Konflitu no Sosiál (IEDKS)
  • Antero B. da Silva, Phd. Peskizadór Institutu ba Estudu Dame Konflitu no Sosiál (IEDKS)

Introdusaun

Nasaun sira membru ONU sei dilematiku, dalaruma iha komitmentu ba implementasaun ne’ebé juridikamente la venkula i kabe ba prinsípiu holistiku sira ne’ebé adopta husi Objetivu Dezenvolvimentu Sustentável ka SDG tinan 2015 no modelu dezenvolvimentu MCC ne’ebé klot, maibé tendénsia ba apoiu ‘aid addicted’ iha polítiku. (Gyawali 2022).

Tenta kuaze liu dékada ida, parlamentu nasionál Timor-Leste ratifika ona MCC iha Outubru 2022. Entantu, la’ós de’it Timor-Leste, iha aseitasaun “ajuda polítika” husi MCC, maibé eziste  liu nasaun 52, iha estadu Sul globál sira ne’ebé ke aseita i ratifika ona apoiu ajudu MCC dezde MCC hahú inisia husi eis prezidente George W. Bush Junior iha 2004. No mosu ona konflitu polítiku iha nasaun hirak ne’ebé simu MCC.

 

Ne’e nu’udar revizaun preliminariu hodi ba intende natureza polítika, dahuluk, oinsá eziste kontrovérsiais kona-ba MCC. No tuir mai oinsá atu ba hatene presupostu ka asumsiu sira ba ratifikasaun MCC husi Parlamentu Nasionál Timor-Leste; no implikasaun polítika sira ne’ebé sei akontese ba Timor-Leste iha futuru mai.

 

The Club of Rome: Relasaun Forte husi Kresimentu Ekonomia no Dezenvolvimentu Sustentável

The Club of Rome konsidera-an hanesan “invisible college” hamriik husi teknokrata no emprezáriu sira, pronunsia ona livru balun mai ho títulu ne’ebé koñesidu ba kresimentu ekonomia ne’ebé iha ninia limatasaun. Peter Passell, Marc Roberts no Leonard Ross, husi New York Times kontinua ho hakerek, sivilizasaun ka dezenvolvimentu tenki to’o ba iha ninia rohan.

 

Kresimentu populasaun no kontinuasaun indústria sei gastu ba mineiru no sei destroi biosfera iha nível poluisaun ne’ebé fatal. Sei-kuandu mantein ho modelu dezenvolvimentu atuál, iha ne’ebé limitasaun planeta sei termina iha tinan 100 mai oin. (New York Times 1972).

 

Kuaze liu dékade ida hafoin iha tinan 1987 Primeiru Ministru Norwegia hato’o diskursu, ne’ebé kontinua diskuti sobre dezenvolvimentu sustentável durante konferénsia altu nível iha Kopenhagen, no koñesidu hanesan relatóriu Brundtland, husi ne’e konseitu dezenvolvimentu hahú ona influénsia makas ba mundu i ba kada dezenvolvimentu nasionál estadu sira (ONU, 1987).

 

Enkuadrumentu governansia globál ne’ebé mais kompresivu liu mak adoptasaun iha ONU hanaran agenda 2030 Objetivu Dezenvolvimentu Sustentável ka Sustainable Development Goals (SDG) kompostu ho nia elementu 17. SDG akumula objetivu, tarjeitu no sai indikador ba halakon ki’ak, protesaun ambientál, prosperiedade umanu no dame (ONU, 2015). Estadu no sosiedade internasionál iha dever ba adopta no implementa Objetivu Dezenvolvimentu Sustentável, ne’ebé sentru ba ema no protesaun planeta.

 

Tranzisaun husi deklarasaun millennium (Millenium Declaration) ho Objetivu Dezenvolvimentu Millenium ka Millenium Development Goals (MDG) 2000–2015 ba SDG 2015–2030 reflete ba evolusaun diskusaun polítika foun iha dezenvolvimentu sustentável. Maibé mosu krítika sira hateten estadu sira la sériu hodi sufisiente ba implementa Objetivu Desenvolvimentu Sustentável. Aleinde ne’e, iha mós akademistas hateten “governance through goals”, iha ne’ebé governansia sustentabilidade globál depende kada vez liu ba estabelesimentu metas nu’udar estratejia xave. Governansia depende ba objetivu sira ne’ebé juridikamente la vinkulativus, hodi fo espasu nasionál barak no la mai ho regulamentu   forte institusionál sira. (Biermann et al., 2017, 26; Vijge et al., 2020; Kanie and Biermann, 2017; Fukuda-Parr et al., 2014). Ne’e signifika laiha serteza katak objetivu globál ne’e mós haroman ba iha polítika nível nasionál (Earth System Governance 2021).[1]

Kestaun ne’e sei influénsia ba nasaun sira atu nakloke-an oinsá iha komitmentu ba obrigasaun objetivu seluk bilateralmente, ho adoptasaun konseitu halo ona MCC sai modelu ba kresimentu eknomia (Economic Growth) ne’ebé problematiku hahú husi kritika The Club of Rome 1972 mai to Bruntland Report 1987 hodi nafatin hanesan isu globál, ne’ebé kestiona ona husi lider Sul sira, oinsá kompatibilidade paradigma modernismu baze kresimentu ekonomia no paradigm dezenvolvimentu ONU. Importante mós oinsá tau konsiderasaun katak dezenvolvimentu estadu ida nian, iha ne’ebé konseptualizasaun dezenvolvimentu sai difisil sei wainhira la diskuti ho konseitu des-dezenvolvimentu. Defaktu iha ne’ebé intelektuál barak hateten katak intendimentu ba konseitu refere intensiva wainhira bazeia ba teoria.(Emeh 2013)[2]. Teoria dezenvolvimentu mós sei la apenas bo’ot de’it ho ninia númeru, maibé abranje iha jerál, énfaze ba diferensia disiplina hanesan ekonomia, siénsia polítika no sosiolojia, seidauk sura mós ho psikolojia inklui jeográfia. Aleinde ne’e hamosu mós konseitu sira oinsá atu iha korespondensia espesífika ba problema ne’ebé espesifiku iha área jeográfia hanesan iha Amerika Latina, Áfrika, Mediu Oriente no Sudeste Aziátiku (Larrain 1989)[3] nue’e rasionalidade polítika iha ita-nia époka mak Neoliberalismu, aproximasaun governasaun ne’ebé expanda ho forma oin-oin ba mundu tomak iha dékade tolu ikus ne’e, (Harvey 2005)[4] no utilizasaun ba polítika Neo-Liberal, hanesan privatizasaun i liberalizasaun ba merkadu, advokasia no harii modelu estadu fraku (Weak State Model) ba dezenvolve privatizasaun no liberalizasaun ekonomia nasionál, mak modelu estadu fraku sei halo estadu la asumi papel importante hodi la orienta estadu ba lidera no kontrolu, maibé fo biban liu ba seitor privadu oinsá lidera no kontrolu dezenvolvimentu ekonomia nasaun. Ida ne’e sai ona problema iha nasaun barak iha ne’ebé povu no estadu ki’ik sira hakarak atinji prosperiedade liu husi intervensaun nasaun jigante ba ekonomia.

Referénsia:

[1]. Earth System Governance, (2021), From Millennium to Sustainable Development Goals: Evolving discourses and their reflection in policy coherence for development: Retrieved from https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S258981162030046X

[2]. Emeh, Ikechukwu Eke Jeffry, (2013), Dependency Theory and Africa’s Underdevelopment: a Paradigm Shift from Pseudo Intellectualism: the Nigerian Perspective: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/315719638_Dependency_Theory_and_Africa%27s_Underdevelopment_a_Paradigm_Shift_from_Pseudo-Intellectualism_the_Nigerian_Perspective

[3]. LARRAIN, JORGE (1989), THEORIES OF DEVELOPMENT: Capitalism, Colonialism and Dependency, Polity Press, Dales B rewery, Gwydir Street, Cambridge, UK.

[4]. BARENTS STUDIES, (2014), Neoliberal governance, sustainable development and local communities in the Barents Region: https://www.divaportal.org/smash/get/diva2:985563/FULLTEXT01.pdf

[5]. Millennium Challenge Corporation, (2017), Introduction: Overview of the Millennium Challenge Corporation (MCC):

https://www.mcc.gov/resources/story/story-cdg introduction#:~:text=MCC%27s%20mandate%20is%20to%20assist,selected%20to%20receive%20its%20assistance.

[6]. Millennium Challenge Corporation, (2020), About MCC. Retrieved from Millennium Challenge Corporation: https://www.mcc.gov/about

[7]. Trending Net Nepal, (2020), MILLENNIUM CHALLENGE CORPORATION (MCC) IN NEPAL: https://www.trendingnetnepal.com/millenium-challenge-corporation-in-nepal/

[8]. Kafle, Mandip, Dhakal , Ashish, Magar, Sandip Rana, Sharma, Aakriti (2020), AN ANALYSIS ON MILLENNIUM CHALLENGE CORPORATION (MCC) COMPACT IN NEPAL: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/347517371_AN_ANALYSIS_ON_MILLENNIUM_CHALLENGE_CORPORATION_MCC_COMPACT_IN_NEPAL

[9]. Millennium Challenge Corporation, (2022), Nepal Compact: Features of the Nepal Compact: https://www.mcc.gov/where-we work/program/nepal-compact

[10]. Osmani S. R. and Bajracharya B. B. (2007), THE ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT OF NEPAL: A LONG-TERM PERSPECTIVE: HTTPS://WWW.GOOGLE.COM/URL?SA=T&RCT=J&Q=&ESRC=S&SOURCE=WEB&CD=&CAD=RJA&UACT=8&VED=2AHUKEWIBKBXN_BD7AHV0CRCAHV-7CPEQFNOECA0QAQ&URL=HTTPS%3A%2F%2FPURE.ULSTER.AC.UK%2FFILES%2F11744362%2FNEPAL.DOC&USG=AOVVAW3QHJJ30BMKRSX2B3ANSA0F

[11]. Maharjan, Uttam (2022), Why Controversy Over MCC?: https://old.risingnepaldaily.com/opinion/why-controversy-over-mcc

[12]. The Asia Live, (2022), MCC Is Against Nepal’s National Interest: https://theasialive.com/mcc-isagainst-nepals-national-interest/2022/02/

[13]. The Kathmandu Post, (2022), Why the MCC compact courted controversy in Nepal: https://kathmandupost.com/national/2020/01/09/why-the-mcc-compact-courted-controversy-in-nepal

[14]. Sharma, Buddhi Prasad (2022), Nepal ratifies MCC but will it be beneficial to the country?: https://www.bjreview.com/Opinion/Voice/202203/t20220301_800277301.html

[15]. TIMOR-LESTE STRATEGIC DEVELOPMENT PLAN 2011 – 2030: http://timor-leste.gov.tl/wp-content/uploads/2011/07/Timor-Leste-Strategic-Plan-2011-20301.pdf

[16]. Lao Hamutuk (2022), Timor-Leste and the U.S. Millennium Challenge Corporation: http://www.laohamutuk.org/econ/MCC/10MCC.htm

[17]. U.S. Embassy in Timor Leste, (2018), Millennium Challenge Corporation Visits Timor-Leste to Continue Progress on Compact Development. https://tl.usembassy.gov/millennium-challenge-corporation-visits-timor-leste-to-continue-progress-on-compact-development/

[18]. Compact Development Team-Timor Leste (2022), Seminariu Nasional.

[19]. Komisaun D Trata Asuntu Ekonomia no Dezenvolvimentu (2022), Semianriu Nasional.

[20]. Bankada PLP, (2022) Seminariu Nasional.

[21]. Lao Hamutuk, (2012), Why should Timor-Leste go into debt? https://www.laohamutuk.org/econ/debt/09Borrowing.htm

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