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Istória indústria petroleum iha mundu. Oinsá ho Timor-Leste?

Istória indústria petroleum iha mundu. Oinsá ho Timor-Leste?

Akademista husi DIT, Teodoro Mota

Primeiru deskobrementu naturál gás iha mundu iha tinan 211-347. Altura ne’ebá naturál gás deskobre iha área Chi-lui-ching, Szechuan, Tiongkok. Bainhira komunidade sira halo perfurasaun ba masin ne’ebé eziste iha rai-okos. Komunidade sira uza au (bamboo) hodi fura ba rai-okos, no foti masin iha rai-okos hodi uza ba nesesidade moris. Ho ida nee, primeiru perfurasaun minarai ho gás akontese iha mundu komesa iha Tiongkok, Xina iha tinan 347. Altura ne’ebé posu minarai ho gás ne’ebé eziste iha Tiongkok maioria ho klean 800 feet. Posu balun eziste masin, asosia ho minarai no gás.

Iha tinan 885 to’o 886 minarai ho gás hahú konese iha Azerbaizan no norte Caucasus. Momentu ne’ebá Khalifah Baghdad oferese osan ba povu Darband ne’ebé rezultadu hetan husi barter ka faan minarai ho gás ho maneira tradisionál ne’ebé hala’o iha Sumeria iha era Liurai Hammurabi, nune’e mós iha Grego era Herodotus.

Iha tinan 1132 Posu minarai ho gás ne’ebé eziste iha Tiongkok dezenvolve no atinji to’o perfunidade 3000 feet. Iha tinan 1184 akontese fenomena premeiru kona-ba minarai naksuli mai rai leten (oil seeps) ho volume bo’ot iha área besik Mosul. Iha parte seluk, iha tinan 1188 Giraldus Cambrensis deskreve fatuk sira ne’ebé eziste iha nasaun Wales posibilidade akomula minarai ho gás, ho spekulasaun katak bele eksploita minarai ho gás husi fatuk sira nee ho maneira spesifikamente.

Prosesu nee la’o to’o iha 1298, Marco Polo observa exploitasaun minarai ho gás husi fenomena naksuli sai mai rai leten (oil seeps) iha área Abseron Peninsula. Nia deskreve katak minarai refere bele uza ba nesesidade sunu no uza ba ai-moruk, no bele transporta uza kuda buru. Nune mos, iha tinan 1460, Francisco Ariosto identifika hetan oil seeps besik Modena, Italia. Minarai refere bele uza ba nesesidade ai-moruk ka mediku. Iha tinan 1526, G. Fernández de Oviedo y Valdéz hahú uza minarai no uza misturasaun ai u’ut ho partikel kimiku balun hodi konstrui ro ahi iha área besik Havana, Kuba.

Tinan 1539 ro husi Spanha ho naran Santa-Cruz transporta minarai ho volume ton ida husi Venezuela ba Spanhol hodi ajuda governasaun Liurai Charles I. Tinan 1543, Hernando de Soto identifika oil seeps iha Mexico. Nunemos, iha tinan 1545, Georgius Agricola identifika oil seeps iha área besik Hanover, Jerman. Nia deskreve oilseeps refere bele utiliza ba illuminasaun, lumbrikasaun, no waterproofing. Iha tinan 1596, Jan Huygen van Linschoten deskobre oil seeps no atividade industria minarai primitivu iha Sumatra, Indonesia.

Tinan 1636, Diplomata husi Jerman ho naran Adam Oleari observa posu minarai hamutuk 30 iha área Baku no deskreve katak entre posu sira nee eziste minarai no gás ho volume ne’ebé masiva. Ho nune, iha tinan 1683, Engelbert Kaempfer nu’udar sekretaris embasador Swedia iha Persia, vizita fatin refere no observa prosesu eksploitasaun ka produsaun, prosesamentu, no exporta minarai ba Abseron Peninsula.

Tinan 1702, Premeiru Liu rai Rusia Tsar Peter ejije haruka sampel minarai husi Siberia ba nia, no nia fo orientasaun atu hahú halo explorasaun iha área Rusia nian. Rezultadu hatudu iha tinan 1717 hahú deskobre ezistensia minarai iha área Volga–Urals, Rusia. Nune,e iha rai ida ho naran Baku hahú harii refinaria primitivu hodi responde ba nesesidade produsaun minarai iha teritoria lokal.

Iha tinan 1748, Peter Kalm husi Swedia, nia mak ema premeiru ne’ebé publika no halo mapamentu hatudu oil seeps iha Creek ne’ebé ohin loron konesidu ho área Pennsylvania. Tinan 1821, hahú halo perfurasaun ba naturál gás iha Fredonia, New York, no komunidade balun ne’ebé residensia iha área nee uza gás naturál ba nesesidade sunu no halakan uma laran.

Tinan 1830, Johann Lenz investiga kona-ba atividade produsaun minarai ne’ebé hala’o iha refinaria premitiva iha Rusia, no rezultadu hatudu produsaun annual minarai ekuivalente ho 30,145 baril husi posu minarai hamutuk 80, no iha tinan 1833, Benjamin Silliman hala’o premeiru experimentu kona-ba distilasaun hidrokarbunetu. Tinan 1836, Gian Bianconi hahú estudu siensia Geolojia ne’ebé ligadu ho ezistensia minarai ho gás iha Italia. Aumesmu tempu, iha tinan 1837, Nikolai Ivanovich Voskoboinikov hahú hamosu projeitu piloto industria refinaria besik área Baku iha teritoriu Rusia.

Tinan 1859, perfurasaun posu minarai ne’ebé sucessu tebes iha weste Virginia, ne’ebé fura husi kompanhia minarai virginia (Virginia Petroleum Company), nain ba kompanha nemak Robert Hazlett no oleh Charles Shattuck. Iha parte seluk, Edwin L. Drake deskobre minarai ho klean purvolta 69 feet, ho posu minarai besik iha Titusville, no Pennsylvania. Iha tinan 1861, Thomas Sterry Hunt no E. B. Andrews, ema premeiru ne’ebé hamosu teoria anticlinal, katak ezistensia hidrokarbunetu so iha antiklina, minarai bele akumuladu ka trapping bazea ba formasaun geolojia. Nunemos, premeiru deskobrementu kampu minarai ho gás ho rezerva massiva iha área La Brea ka ho naran Negritos, nasaun Peru iha tinan 1868-1873. Tama iha tinan 1876, kampu minarai premeiru ne’ebé produsaun komersial iha Kalifornia no deskobre husi Pico Canyon iha Los Angeles.

Iha tinan 1877 to’o 2009, kontempla informasaun no istoria sira ne’ebé ligadu ho atividade industria minarai no gás iha mundu, ne’ebé kobre kona-ba evolusaun industria minarai, kriasaun kompanhia minarai internasional (International Oil Company/IOC), kriasaun padraun internasional ne’ebé kompanhia minarai ho nasaun hotu-hotu uza, opta, adapta, no aplika ba nesesidade industria petroliferu, kriasaun lei no kontratu petroliferu, no kriasaun organizasaun exportador no importador minarai. Nune mos evolusaun sira ne’ebé eziste iha industria laran, liga ho portofoliu negosiu, politika, mafiuju, kompanha sira haksesuk malu projeitu petroliferu, presu minarai ho gás ne’ebé fluktuasi, nunemos mudansa no dinamika merkadu industria iha Asia, Eropa, no Amerika.

Kompanha minarai internasional sira ne’ebé mosu iha era 1877 to’o 2009 mak: Nobel Brothers Petroleum Production Company (Branobel) (1879), Burmah Oil Company (1886), Ohio Oil Company (1887), South Penn Oil Company (1889), Royal Dutch Petroleum Company (1890), The Pure Oil Company (1895), Gulf Refining Company no Indian Territory Illuminating Oil Company (1901), Phillips Petroleum estabelese iha Bartlesville, Oklahoma, hari husi Frank Phillips (1903), Burmah Oil Company (1905), no Mexican Eagle Petroleum Company (Compañía Mexicana de Petróleo el Aguila) (1908), National Iranian Oil Company (1951), ENI (1953), Petrobras (1953), Atlantic Richfield Company (Arco) (1966), Abu Dhabi Company for Onshore Oil Operation (ADCO), no Abu Dhabi Marine Operating Company (ADMAOPCO) (1974), Petróleos de Venezuela, S.A. (PdVSA) (1975), British National Oil Company (BNOC) (1976), no Iranian Oil Offshore Company (IOOC) (1980).

Iha tinan 1911, tribunal supremu U.S. halo dizolve ba standarizasaun kompanhia minarai. Nune dizolve ba 34 kompanhia subkontratu ne’ebé independente, no kompetetivu, mak hanesan tuir mai:

Kompanhia Standard Oil of New Jersey (ikus mai sai naran ba Exxon ka ExxonMobil), Standard Oil Company of New York (Ikus mai sai Mobil ka ExxonMobil), Vacuum Oil Company (Ikus mai sai naran Mobil ka ExxonMobil), Standard Oil of Indiana (Ikus mai sai naran Amoco, ne’ebé merje ba kompanha BP), Standard Oil of California (Ikus mai sai naran Chevron), Atlantic Refining Company (depois muda ba Atlantic Richfield, Arco, eventualmente nain mak BP), Continental Oil Company (Ikus mai sai Conoco ka ConocoPhillips), South Penn Oil Company (depois sai ba Pennzoil, eventualmente sai parte ba Royal Dutch Shell), Standard Oil Company of Ohio (Sohio, eventualmente BP mak nain), no Ohio Oil Company (Ikus mai sai naran Marathon). Magnolia Petroleum Company hahú estabelese. Humble Oil Company, ne’ebé uluk ho naran the Humble Oil and Refining Company (ne’ebé parte husi Standarte Oil of New Jersey, ultimamente Exxon), mos estabele.

Padraun no organizasaun internasional sira ne’ebé asosia iha industria minarai, no kria iha era 1877 to’o 2009 mak: American Institute of Mining Engineers (AIME) (1871), American Petroleum Institute (API) (1919), Society of Petroleum Engineering (SPE) (1957), Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) (1959-1960), Organization of Arab Petroleum Exporting Countries (OAPEC) (1968), Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) (1974), no Gás Exporting Countries Forum (GECF) (2001).

 

Iha tinan 2010 akontense asidente bo’ot iha industria minarai iha Gulf Mexico, kauza husi explozaun minarai ho gás ne’ebé nakfakar suli ba tasi laran ho volume to’o 5 miliaun baril, nune mos ahi han plata forma ka fasilidade produsaun no prejudika ema 11 mate, no 17 kanek todan. Insidente nee kauza biodiversidade tasi hetan destroisaun makas, no presija tempu to’o fulan lima hafoin normaliza. Husi nee Uni Eropa hahú fo sensaun ba Iran, no haruka Iran atu hapara programa kriasaun Nuklir iha altura ne’ebá. Nunemos ConocoPhillips faan fila fali sira nia asoens iha Lukoil.

Tinan 2011, Texas foti fila fali rai konsesu teritoria Gulf Mexico nu’udar tarjetu produsaun, nune Estadu Unidus Amerika sai nasaun ho produsaun minarai bo’ot iha mundu. Venezuela sai nasaun ho rezerva petroleum bo’ot iha mundu, infelizmente nasaun Sudan produsaun minarai rahun ka kolapse. Iha parte seluk, Norwegia no Rusia asina akordu kona-ba fronteira tasi no hahú validu no tama ba vigor tuir prinsipiu industria minarai no lei internasional kona-ba dereitu nain ba tasi, rai, no rikezas.

Tinan 2012, Estadu Unidus no Uni Eropa fo sensaun ekonomia ba Iran hodi limita no redus produsaun minarai iha Iran, nune produsaun minarai hatun ba 20% entre tinan 2011 to’o 2013. Iha parte seluk, Nasaun Argentina expropriata ka nasionaliza asoens 51% husi kompanha Repsol. No iha angola pela premeira vez deskobre minarai husi kompanha Minarai Maersk Oil.

Iha tinan 2013, nasaun Mexico hala’o reformasaun ba industria minarai no hapara monopolia PEMEX ne’ebé eziste iha nasaun refere. Iha parte seluk, Prezidente Venezuela Hugo Chávez hakotu is no subtitui ho Nicolás Maduro hodi kontinua nia ukun. Nunemos, Mikhail Khodorkovsky hetan perdaun husi prezidente Vladimir Putin Rusia no husik nian livre husi prijaun. Iha parte seluk George P. Mitchell, ne’ebé sai pioneriu ba teknolojia fracking iha industria minarai hakotu mos is iha 2012.

Tinan 2014, skandal korupsaun ne’ebé involve parte no entidade relevante sira ho kompanha minarai Petrobrás iha Brazil rahun no deskonfia kompaña Petrobras mak sai sentru ba skandal korupsaun. Iha parte seluk, kompanha Repsol negosia atu hetan fila fali nia asoens ne’ebé faan ona ba Governasaun Argentina ho valor $U.S. 5 biliaun. Nunemos, kompanha minarai Baker Hughes no Halliburton anunsia atu merjer ka unifika, maibe infelizmente la konsege realija. Kompanha minarai Gazprom asina kontratu ho Xina National Petroleum Corporation atu haruka volume gás 1.342 trillion cubic feet (Tcf) kada tinan ba Xina durante tinan 30, deskonta  husi tinan 2018.

Tinan 2015, nasaun Iran hetan konsensu diak  no atinji akordu sira ho Estadu Unidus Amerika ho nasaun sira seluk hodi kontrola programa nuklir ne’ebé inisia husi Iran. Iran hahú hetan redusaun ba sensaun sira ne’ebé Amerika ho Uni Eropa kondena ba nian, nune mos flesibilija produsaun minarai iha teritoriu Iran nian. Rezultadu hatudu produsaun gás shale iha Iran 50% bo’ot liu iha Amerika. Iha parte seluk, Xina hahú sosa gás husi Maday iha Burma, Myanmar ne’ebé transporta via pipe line lori ba Xina, nune bele redus Xina nia dependensia gás iha Malaka. Iha tinan 2015, reprezentante nasaun hamutuk 196 hala’o ekontru internasional hodi konkorda akordu PARIS. Akordu Paris mak akordu ida ne’ebé nasaun hotu-hotu konkorda atu redus produsaun fossil fuel, no konsentra ba dezenvolvimentu enerjia renovavies, konserva ambiete mos, hijenia, nunemos asegura ba mudansa iklimatika ne’ebé rezulta husi atividade industria mundial.

Tinan 2016, Arab Saudi anunsia katak sira konsidera asoens husi kompanha minarai Saudi Aramco. Nunemos, Gabon hahú hola parte fila fali ho OPEC, nunemos Indonesia hahú rejoins fali ho OPEC. Iha parte seluk, Prezidente Brazil, Dilma Rousseff, ezonera husi pozisaun tamba involvidu iha Skandal Petrobrás, meskipun nia la identifika hola papel iha skandal refere.

Iha tinan 2017, Prezidente Amerika Serikat, Donald Trump, anunsia nia intensaun atu sai husi akordu PARIS. Iha parte seluk, ExxonMobil hetan konkordansia ho governasaun Chad, no kompanha General Electric akuisisi ho kompanha Baker Hughes. Nunemos, kompanha Repsol halo deskobrementu minarai ho volume to’o 1,2 biliaun iha Alaska’s Norte. Kompanha Premier Oil husi Inggris sai empreza iha setor privadu ne’ebé hala’o atividade perfurasaun iha tasi laran (offshore) iha Mexiko, no deskobre volume minarai ho valor 1 biliaun baril. Iha tinan 2017, Eis CEO ExxonMobil, Rex Tillerson, toma pose sai ministro negosiu estrajeiru iha estadu unidus Amerika.

 

Oinsa Istoria Atividade Industria Minarai iha Timor-Leste?

Bazea be esplikasaun iha leten, hatudu katak maske dezenvovimentu industria minarai iha Timor foin hahú, maibe ezistensia industria refere tuan ona iha mundu. Timor-leste bele adapta ka adopta boa pratika no sistema diak sira ne’ebé aplikada iha nasaun dezenvolvidu, nune bele kontekstualiza iha ita nia rai tuir jeografia no kondisaun rikezas, nu’udar meius hodi stimula no atari investors halo investimentu iha Timor-Leste.

Istoria identifikasaun minarai ho gás iha Timor-Leste. Deskobrementu minarai iha Tasi Timor, ida mak Kampu bayu undan (BU) mak kampu petroliferu ne’ebé eziste iha Tasi Timor lokalija entre nasaun rua Timor-Leste ho Austrália. Distansia husi kampu BU mai Timor-Leste 250 kilometru (KM) no ba Austrália 500 KM. Kampu BU lokaliza iha tasi ne’ebé klean 80 metru ho estimasaun rezerva mina kondensadu 550 miliaun baril (MMbbls) ho rezerva gás naturál 4 triliun kubiku feet (Tcf). Altura ne’ebá tuir planu dezenvolvimentu kampu BU sei fura posu minarai hamutuk 22, husi nee posu 17 mak halo perfurasaun iha faze premeiru inisiu 2003 no halo produsaun iha 2004 ho produtu tolu mak mina kondesadu, propana ho butana. Faze segundu produsaun gás naturál iha 2006, produsaun gás ne’ebé transfer tuir kadoras (pipeline) ba planta LNG iha Darwin hodi liquifika molok faan ba merkadu (S.R. Neubecker, C.T. Erbrich, 2004).

Kampu BU deskoberta iha 1995 husi Companya Phillips Petroleum (Reese et al., 1997). Kampu BU agora dadaun tama ona iha faze dezenvolvimentu ho produsaun. Tuir informasaun husi autoridade nasional petroleu (ANP) ho SANTOS nu’udar kompaña operador katak estimasaun kampu BU nia tempu produsaun (life time production) to’o deit fim 2023 tamba produsaun minarai hahú deklina, no sei la ekonomis. Iha industria petroliferu kampu la ekonomis signifika kustu operasaun ba kampu refere boot liu kompara ho kustu rekoperasaun ka profit, nune sedu ou tarde kompaña sei halo desmantelamentu ba kampu refere. Antes nee, kampu minarai KITAN ne’ebé deskobre iha 2008 no halo dezenvolvimentu ho produsaun hahú 2011 hapara ona produsaun iha 2015 tamba la ekonomis. Kompaña Eni nu’udar operador ba kampu Kitan (Yokote et al., 2012).

Durante nee kampu rua KITAN ho BU mak kontribui ona reseita ba nasaun purvolta $ 30 billioens dollares amerikanu. Husi reseita $ 30 bilioens, $ 12 bilioens mak uza ona ba despeza publiku hahú 2005 to’o agora no ba futuru. Nune fundu petroliferu (FP) agora dadaun rai iha banku federal US purvolta $ 18 billioens dollar amerikanu (https://www.bancocentral.tl/en). Reseita husi produsaun minarai 90% mak finansia orsamentu jeral estadu (OJE) kada anum ba seitor dezenvolvimentu hotu-hotu iha TL. Entretantu reseita domestika durante nee kobre la to’o 10%. Nune kuandu levantamentu FP kada tinan foti liu 3% husi rendimentu estimadu sustentavel (RSE) signifika FP sei hotu iha 2034. Dadus atual hatudu Inflasaun Globál Durante Fulan Lima, TL Lakon $1,6 Billaun (https://www.hatutan.com/2022/06/30/inflasaun-global-durante-fulan-lima-tl-lakon-billaun-16/).

Kampu BU halo ona produsaun desde 2004 to’o agora, signifika tempu produsaun kampu BU to’o ona tinan 18. Dadus atual produsaun minarai kampu BU tinan 2022 hatudu iha fulan fevereiru produsaun mina 2,3 miliaun baril oleu ekivanlente (barrels of oil equivalent (MBOE)), fulan marsu produsaun mina 1,7 MBOE, fulan april produsaun mina 1,5 MBOE no iha fulan maio produsaun mina 1,2 MBOE. Dadus hatudu trend produsaun kampu BU komesa tun dramatika kompara ho tinan sira antes, ne’ebé kapasidade produsaun sempre ho kuantidade boot entre 4-7 MBOE kada fulan (http://www.anpm.tl/).

Bazea ba akordu tratadu anterior ne’ebé aplika iha dezenvolvimentu kampu BU, hatudu katak Austrália sai maioria benefisiariu husi dezenvolvimentu kampu BU. Austrália unilateralmente reklama kontrolu ba kadoras BU tomak inkluindu impostu. Austrália mos unilateralmente faan gás helium. Gás ida ne’ebé importante tebes ba iha área defeja ninian no prosesa iha darwin LNG. Maibe faan gás helium la hetan konhesementu ou nunka atu fahe ho reseita ba TL. Nunee mos Austrália benefisia husi lei karantina, equipamentus ne’ebé tama no fornese ba kampu BU nee tenke liu husi ou sujeita ba Austrália, inklui 90% fornese bems de servisu ba operasaun BU mai deit husi Austrália. Operador ba kampu BU altura ne’ebá mak ConocoPhillips ho joint venture kompaña minarai Santos, INPEX, Tokyo Electric Power Company, Tokyo Gás Co., Ltd, PETROZ, Eni, Agip, ho kompaña Kni (Sims M.A. et al., 2004). Agora dadaun kompaña Santos mak sai nu’udar operador iha kampu BU subtitui kompaña ConocoPhillips.

Deskobrementu seluk mak Kampu Greater Sunrise (GS). Tuir Ainsworth R.B. et al., (2020), Kampu GS kompostu husi kampu gás rua mak: Sunrise no Troubador ho potensia rezervatoriu gás purvolta 10.4–19.2 trillion cubic feet (Tcf) no mina purvolta 474-914 milioens barrels kondensadu (MMbbls) (Ainsworth et al., 2000). Kampu GS deskobre desde 1974 no konsidera nu’udar kampu petroleu provadu, tamba justifika ona liu husi estudu geolojia ho jeofizika, halo ona perfurasaun explorasaun ba posu 6 (nen), halo appraisal iha 1995 ho teste posu ka well testing ba 11 (sanulu resin ida) no dadus wireline log hatudu rezultadu signifikadu tebes (Ainsworth, R. B., Stephenson, P. M., Johnson, D. A., & Seggie, R. J. (2000).

Operador ba kampu GS mak Woodside (33.44%), Osaka Gás (10%) ho Timor Gap (56.56%). Distansia husi kampu GS mai Timor-Leste 150 kilometru (KM) no ba Austrália 450 KM. Molok hahú dezenvolve kampu GS, presija diskute klean kona-ba planu dezenvolvimentu kampu (field development plan), no hatur klaru regulamentu no prosedimentu legais ne’ebée opera, regula no kontempla ona iha akordu FM (Fronteira Maritima), PMC (Petroleum Mining Code), IPMC (Interim Petroleum Mining Code), Ancillary regulation, Production Sharing Contract (PSC) hodi asegura win-win solution ba empreza no governu. Tuir regime espesial GS karik pipeline mai TL reseita sei fahe 70% mai TL no 30% ba Austrália. Enkuantu kuandu pipeline ba Austrália reseita sei fahe 80% mai TL no 20% ba Austrália. Nune nasaun rua iha direitu hodi foti desijaun kona-ba futuru dezenvolvimentu kampu GS, liu husi governance board ne’ebé nomeadu husi nasaun rua.

Kampu GS konsidera kampu minarai provadu ne’ebé futuru bele produs hodi kontinua fo reseita ba governu TL, wainhira Kampu minarai BU hapara produsaun. Komersialidade dezenvolvimentu gás iha kampu GS depende ba: rezerva gás (reserve), folin gás (price) no demanda gás iha merkadu (buyer/market). Dadus hatudu estimasaun rezerva gás ho mina kondensadu iha kampu Greater Sunrise (GS) boot liu kompara ho kampu Bayu Undan.

Iha rai maran (onshore) deskobrementu no estudu explorasaun ba minarai ho gás preira hala’o husi kompanha Timor Oil husi Austrália ne’ebé hala’o ona estudu jeolojia, deskobrementu, no perfurasaun posu hamutuk 18 iha munisípiu Covalima iha tinan 1957-1975, ne’ebé perfurasaun atinje ba zona Rezervatoriu ba formasaun Viqueque ne’ebé konsideradu nu’udar Zona ezistensia hidrokarbunetu (Sweet Spot ka Net Pay Zone). Tuir dadus, Iha Munisípiu Covalima eziste formasaun Suai, Formasaun Viqueque, Bobonaru Complex no Lolotoi Complex ho klean posu entre 500-2500 metru. Iha tinan 1994 kompaña Pertamina husi Indonesia hala’o survey Seismic 2D no Perfurasaun iha Bloku A, iha área Suai, Bloku B iha área Manatuto, Pualaka, no Lolotoi. Bloku C iha área Betanu-Same.

Agora dadaun, iha área lisensiamentu PSC-TL OT 17 08 no PSC-TL OT 17 09 operador mak kompanha Timor Resources. Nune mos, pela premeira vez Timor resources hala’o atividade perfurasaun iha rai maran depois de independensia. Ho nune, atividade industria minarai iha rai maran foin tama iha faze explorasaun. Signifika iha faze halo identifikasaun no deskobrementu ba ezistensia hidrokarbunetu. Bainhira identifikadu rezerva provadu ekonomikamente komersial, hafoin kontinua ba faze produsaun, prosesamentu, distilasaun, no distribuisaun. God bless Timor-Leste.

 

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